Pilot Sites - Dordrecht
To deal with increasing flood risk and increasing uncertainty, there is a growing call for integrated flood risk management and climate proofing. However, the actual delivery of an integrated approach and subsequently its mainstreaming faces many barriers and is in its infancy. The EU Floods Directive shyly embraces the integrated approach, but is yet to be implemented at national level. The EU white paper 'Adapting to Climate Change' sets outs a framework to improve EU's resiliency, but is yet to be brought to practice.
The Dutch government recently started pilot projects to test its Multi Level Safety (MLS) approach; for integrated strategies combining 3 safety layers: prevention, spatial planning and crisis management. Key barriers to define and implement truly integrating, long term strategies point towards persistent problems for which participative strategies deem paramount. This paper proposes and evaluates a design for a participative decision making process for an official Dutch pilot project for several key policy processes: Multi Level Safety, the Dutch implementation of the Floods Directive and first experiences with a climate proofing framework. The pilot area is the island of Dordrecht, an exemplary case study to draw lessons from for the Netherlands and other deltaic regions.
The main aspects of relevance to the FloodProBE work programme are:
This paper proposes and evaluates a design for a participative decision making process for an official Dutch pilot project for several key policy processes: Multi Level Safety, the Dutch implementation of the Floods Directive and first experiences with a climate proofing framework.
The City of Dordrecht (CoD) is setting out to achieve sustainable urban development and it is exploring opportunities to integrate water policy and water safety policy with the urban development process. To achieve this objective, the CoD is developing the Multi-Level Safety approach.
This is a three-tier approach to flood risk management. The first tier focuses on flood avoidance (Protection). The other two tiers are aimed at limiting the effects of flooding; the second is intended to create a sustainable layout and design (Prevention), and the third seeks to improve the organisational preparations for potential flooding (Preparedness).
The challenges for the CoD can be described in relation to the three tiers:
- Protection: What is the likelihood of breaching of the urban flood defences? What are effective design solutions to increase the reliability of the urban flood defences? What are potential design solutions for (partially) transforming existing flood defences into Multi-functional Flood Defences?
- Prevention: How to assess the vulnerability of critical infrastructure networks and hotspot buildings? What are potential design solutions for resilient critical infrastructure networks and hotspot buildings?
- Preparedness: How to assess the potential need for smart shelters, in terms of capacity and location? What is the (cost) effectiveness of smart shelters in terms of reducing the number of evacuees and casualties?
Objectives & Actions
Three objectives have been covered within FloodProBE in the pilot site Dordrecht. The first one has been focused on combination of direct and indirect consequences within flood management, where the aim was to develop, apply and evaluate the storyline method as a tool to develop strategies in an integrated flood risk management approach.
Next objective covered the area of concepts and technologies for multifunctional flood defences; the research has explored a range of functions for potential integration into flood defences structures. Based on stakeholder input, the most promising concepts have been detailed and tested in a pilot study "Kop van’t Land".
Finally the last objective and related actions were focused on the technologies to integrate sheltering function to buildings. Here the aim of the research was to develop and assess technologies that integrate a shelter function in various building types in urban areas, such as high-rise or (semi-)public buildings such as sport stadiums.
The research performed at the pilot site Dordrecht brought discovered many issues useful for general application. For example the “storyline method” proved to be very strong and useful tool even when evaluating flood events, which forces its users to select details of an analysed event, provides insight and reveals knowledge gaps, allows exploring specific scenarios, enhances discussion about the issue etc.
In case of the “sub-pilot” study “Kop van’t Land” a cost-benefit analysis of has been applied to two selected dike-strengthening scenarios, taking into account the multifunctional aspects of the reconstructed dike. The analysis discovered benefit-cost ration higher than 1 in both rather different scenarios.
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